RMIT builds a structure with supernatural strength

RMIT University

Monday, 26 February, 2024

RMIT builds a structure with supernatural strength

RMIT University researchers have announced they have created a new 3D-printed metamaterial from common titanium alloy boasting levels of strength for weight not normally seen in nature or manufacturing, and which could change how we make everything from medical implants to aircraft or rocket parts.

Recently revealed in the journal Advanced Materials, the metamaterial — a term used to describe an artificial material with unique properties not observed in nature — has a unique lattice structure design that makes it 50% stronger than the next strongest alloy of similar density used in aerospace applications.

Improving nature’s own design

Lattice structures made from hollow struts were originally inspired by nature: strong hollow-stemmed plants like the Victoria water lily or the hardy organ pipe coral (Tubipora musica) showed us the way in combining lightness and strength.

However, as RMIT’s Distinguished Professor Ma Qian explains, decades of trying to replicate these hollow ‘cellular structures’ in metals has been frustrated by the common issues of manufacturability and load stress concentrating on the inside areas of the hollow struts, leading to premature failures.

“Ideally, the stress in all complex cellular materials should be evenly spread,” Qian explained, “However, for most topologies, it is common for less than half of the material to mainly bear the compressive load, while the larger volume of material is structurally insignificant.”

Metal 3D printing provides unprecedented innovative solutions to these issues. By pushing 3D printing design to its limits, the RMIT team optimised a new type of lattice structure to distribute the stress more evenly, enhancing its strength or structural efficiency.

“We designed a hollow tubular lattice structure that has a thin band running inside it. These two elements together show strength and lightness never before seen together in nature,” Qian said. “By effectively merging two complementary lattice structures to evenly distribute stress, we avoid the weak points where stress normally concentrates.”

Laser-powered strength

They 3D-printed this design at RMIT’s Advanced Manufacturing Precinct using a process called laser powder bed fusion, where layers of metal powder are melted into place using a high-powered laser beam.

Testing showed the printed design — a titanium lattice cube — was 50% stronger than cast magnesium alloy WE54, the strongest alloy of similar density used in aerospace applications. The new structure had effectively halved the amount of stress concentrated on the lattice’s weak points.

The double lattice design also means any cracks are deflected along the structure, further enhancing the toughness.

Study lead author and RMIT PhD candidate Jordan Noronha said they could make this structure at the scale of several millimetres or several metres in size using different types of printers. This printability, along with the strength, biocompatibility, corrosion and heat resistance make it a promising candidate for many applications from medical devices such as bone implants to aircraft or rocket parts.

“Compared with the strongest available cast magnesium alloy currently used in commercial applications requiring high strength and light weight, our titanium metamaterial with a comparable density was shown to be much stronger or less susceptible to permanent shape change under compressive loading, not to mention more feasible to manufacture,” Noronha said.

The team plans to further refine the material for maximum efficiency and explore applications in higher-temperature environments. While currently resistant to temperatures as high as 350°C, they believe it could be made to withstand temperatures up to 600°C using more heat-resistant titanium alloys, for applications in aerospace or firefighting drones.

The Technical Director of RMIT’s Advanced Manufacturing Precinct, Distinguished Professor Milan Brandt, said the team welcomed companies wanting to collaborate on the many potential applications.

“Our approach is to identify challenges and create opportunities through collaborative design, knowledge exchange, work-based learning, critical problem-solving and translation of research,” he said.

Titanium Multi-Topology Metamaterials with Exceptional Strength' was published in Advanced Materials (DOI: 10.1002/adma.202308715).

Image: PhD candidate Jordan Noronha holding a sample of the new titanium lattice structure 3D-printed in cube form. Credit: RMIT.

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